Cropping is when you cut pieces off your photo to zoom in on a subject, to remove unwanted elements, or to change the shape of your photo. Our phones shoot a rectangular image, so creating a square picture for example requires us to crop the sides of the shot.
Depending on how your camera exposed your photo, you might need to make the image brighter or darker. This adjustment can help recover some info, but if you’re trying to edit a JPG, there might not be enough information to repair highlights or dark shadow details.
Contrast is the range between the darkest areas of your shot and the brightest areas.Lighting will naturally increase or decrease the contrast. A noonday shot with a clear sky will have more contrast than a photo taken in the early evening with a cloudy sky. We can edit contrast, artificially pushing this range farther apart in our photos.
This is a measure of the color vividness in your photo. The more you increase the saturation, the more intense the colors will become. When editing, you can also use the saturation setting to remove all color from your image making it black and white.
Highlights and Shadow
While brightness is a global adjustment to your whole photo, you can tweak shadows and highlights separately. Maybe the shadows in your photo are too dark, you can brighten them without affecting the exposure of the rest of the photo. Maybe the highlights in your photo are a touch too bright, you can pull those back without making the rest of the photo too dark.
Sharpness refers to the amount of detail in your image, and the clarity of that detail. The combination of lens and sensor influences the sharpness of your picture. With software, you can adjust sharpness within reason, making details a little crisper.
Similar to how we can control white balance to adjust color while taking a photo, hue allows us to shift the color temperature after we take the photo. We can make colors warmer or cooler using this setting to achieve the tone we want.
Either while shooting or while editing, your phone will likely have an app where you can apply some prebuilt filters. These filters automatically adjust a number of settings to achieve a bolder, vintage or degraded look.